After stress relieving, however, greater dimensional stability is maintained during machining, providing for increased dimensional reliability. Stress relieving is done by subjecting the parts to a temperature of about 75 ºC ... (1340 ºF) of steel—thus stress relieving is done at about 650 ºC (1202 ºF) for about one hour or till the whole part reaches the temperature. This process is mainly suited for low-carbon steel. Total Materia remains the only tool which will be used for this purpose. After machining and intermittently during service, the steel must be thermally stress relieved by heating to 900ºF (482ºC), equalizing and holding for one hour per inch (25.4mm) of thickness, and cooling in air to ambient temperature. Post-treatment cleaning or scale removal treatments are therefore often required. Type # 1. In air, alloys are subject to discolouration or scaling depending on the alloy and temperature used. Annealing, in metallurgy and materials science, is a heat treatment that alters the physical and sometimes chemical properties of a material to increase its ductility and reduce its hardness, making it more workable. In extre… Although the details of stress-relief cracking mechanisms are not totally un-derstood, general knowledge of the causes of stress-relief cracking for ferritic alloy steels has been well developed (Refs. Stress relieving between machining operations can be performed on pre-treated material. DataPLUS, a new module providing data subsets covering joints information, lubricants and coolants, material dimensions, tribology, and coatings information helps drive even more accurate material selections! Stress relieving is a forging technique to remove or reduce the internal stresses in a metal. Material: type, grade, and the standard from which it is drawn, with drawing, composition and mill certificate where available. Lord Street, The level of mechanical properties required. Stress Relieving. Steels that are not usually normalised are those which would harden significantly during air cooling (e.g. The Tx51 tempers are subjected to a mechanical "stress relief" that can be thought of as "stress aligning". Cooling rate from the stress-relieving temperature is not cri-t ical for titanium alloys. BL9 0RE All commercial alloys can be annealed and stress relieved. For many alloy steels, little or no stress relief occurs at temperatures less than approximately 500°F (260°C), while approximately 90% of the stress is relieved by 1000°F (540°C). Requirements for any special certificates or data to be provided by your heat treater. Stress relieving is the process of heating materials to a suitable temperature and holding temperature long enough to reduce stresses (or internal stress that remains after the original cause of stress has been removed), followed by cooling the material slowly to minimize the development of new residual stresses. Alloys that have been age-hardened are restricted to stress relieving temperatures below the ageing temperature. In general, heating steel to a temperature of about 165°F (75°C) below the transformation temperature (Ac1) for an hour (or until the entire part reaches the temperature), will allow for removal of most internal stresses. Only the low carbon "L" grades or the stabilized 321 and 347 grades should be used in weldments to be stress relieved above 425°C (800°F) as the higher carbon grades are sensitized to IGA when heated above about 425°C (800°F). Alloy steel 4340 heat treatment including: normalizing, annealing, hardening, tempering, spheroidization, stress relief, etc. As a general guideline, it is advisable that the range 480-900C is avoided. Stress relieving offers several benefits. Alloy steel 4340 heat treatment including: normalizing, annealing, hardening, tempering, spheroidization, stress relief, etc. For example, when a component with high residual stresses is machined, the material tends to move during the metal removal operation as the stresses are redistributed. 4340 Steel Heat Treatment. This process is mainly suited for low-carbon steel. Stress relieving, or stress-relief anneal, is done to low carbon grades, including at times low carbon alloys such as A514, in order to remove stresses that have built up in the part from flamecutting or from mechanical flattening. Conventional stress relieving applied to carbon/low alloy steels and cast iron is typically carried out between 500 ° C and 680 ° C. Stress Relieving can be applied to almost any metal. compared the stress relief effect of TSR, VSR and TVSR using twelve 2219 aluminium alloy welding specimens. Normalising is restricted to certain steels for the reasons indicated above. They are the most common and most versatile of the three types of titanium alloys. applied TVSR to reduce the residual stress of 50 mm thick DH 36 steel welded plates. Treatment at typically 150-200°C relieves peak stresses after hardening without significantly reducing hardness (e.g. Bury, As with 815 to 870°C (1500 to 1600°F) stress relief, it is best to test for susceptibility to IGA per ASTM A262. After the soaking time the components should be cooled down slowly in the furnace or in air. If PWHT is conducted at these intermediate temperatures, it may result in the precipitation of secondary phases in the microstructure which can have a detrimental effect on material properties, such as corrosion resistance. The stress relieving effectiveness may have to be reduced to prevent loss of mechanical properties. hardness (Vickers, Brinell), tensile etc. Wallwork Group are operating as normally as possible in the circumstances that we all find ourselves in. As can be seen in Table 1, Stainless steels may be stress relieved too. One (1) hour at 1600°F (870°C) typically relieves about 85% of the residual stresses. Other services required; e.g. 10th March 2021. The Anneal, Normalize, and Stress Relieve processes are different than normal heat treat because there is no quenching or tempering process. For many alloy steels, little or no stress relief occurs at temperatures less than approximately 500°F (260°C), while approximately 90% of the stress is relieved by 1000°F (540°C). • Stress relief at 815 to 870°C (1500 to 1600°F) is occasionally needed when a fully stress relieved assembly is required. The more uninformed and smaller metal grains can also improve a forging’s response to further heat treatment. Straightening: Best done warm 400-800F (205-425C). The temperature range for process annealing ranges from 260 °C (500 °F) to 760 °C (1400 °F), depending on the alloy in question. 1115°F to 1300°F (600°C to 700°C) for hot-work and high-speed tool steels. This is particu-larly true in the 480 to 315°C (900 to 600°F) temperature range. There is no universal stress relieving temperature. Stress relieving steel is always done at temperatures below the range at which the austenite phase begins to form. When stress relieving steel and iron, the typical temperatures range from 1000F to 1300F. Heating is usually carried out in air, so subsequent machining or surface finishing is required to remove scale or decarburised layers. Hardened Material: 50-100°F (30-55°C) below last tempering temperature, hold 2 hrs, air cool. tory stress relief. 2) 2) Carbide dissolution Post-treatment cleaning may therefore be required. For large items, check the availability of suitably-sized facilities at an early stage. For α and α–β alloys, the SR temperature will be in the range of 480–815°C, and if these alloys were β-annealed, more rearrangement of phase boundaries is needed and the SR temperature should be increased by ∼55°C. Typical temperature ranges are: For many alloy steels, little or no stress relief occurs at temperatures less than approximately 500°F (260°C), while approximately 90% of the stress is relieved by 1000°F (540°C). (b) For alloy steel, a stress relieving heat treatment shall be carried out on the basis of the composition of the alloy as shown in the table below:-Table. Any general standards applicable (national, international or company) that contain relevant details which must be adhered to. Stress Relieving Preheating: Because P20 is sold in a pre-hardened condition, hardening heat treatment is not necessary. For tool steels, the process is similar. The stress-free heating temperature is low, eliminating structure transformation during the annealing process. No microstructural changes occur during stress relief processing. A maximum hardness level is often requested for normalised or annealed materials. By AmiEffectives - 14.46. photo src: www.scielo.br. Without it, subsequent processing may give rise to unacceptable distortion and/or the material can suffer from service problems such as stress corrosion cracking. 3. Stress-relief operations are typically done by subjecting the parts to a temperature approximately 40-75ºC (105-165ºF) below the A1 transformation temperature - about 727ºC (1340ºF) for steel. This is important when the parts will go on to be ground, machined, or fabricated. Stress relief annealing is heating the workpiece to a suitable temperature below Ac1 (non-alloy steel at 500~600 °C). However, uni-formity of cooling is. Existing condition; e.g. in annealing to remove the effects of severe cold work). Carbon and Low Alloy Steels b. Stress relieving steel or the stress relief heat treatment of other metals and alloys becomes an important step in the manufacturing process to provide a final quality product. Total Materia New Application Launch! (4340 heat treat) Normalizing: Heat to 845 to 900 °C (1550 to 1650 °F) and hold for a period of time, which depends on the thickness of the section; air cooling. The primary purpose is to relieve stresses that have been absorbed by the metal from processes such as … Annealing processes can take place in air or in protective media such as molten salt, controlled gaseous atmospheres or vacuum. The aim of stress-relief annealing is to release residual stresses! They control the ability of materials to be machined with ease, perform without distortion in service, be formed without cracking or splitting, be subsequently hardened or carburised with minimal distortion, or to resist corrosive environments. In stress relief annealing, the workpiece is annealed below the PSK-line in the range between 550 °C and 650 °C. The temperature range for process annealing ranges from 260 °C (500 °F) to 760 °C (1400 °F), depending on the alloy in question. Treatments above 900°C are often full solution anneals. During a typical arc welding process, the unmelted base metal directly adjacent to … Solution treating. There are several stress relief treatments. Prolonged soaks, as required by some annealing operations, necessitate the selection of a protective medium. Stress relieving offers several benefits. It is not possible to meet a specific figure due to the variables outside the heat treater's control (e.g. Most stress relieving operations are carried out in air, but protective media are also available. Conventional stress relieving applied to carbon/low alloy steels and cast iron is typically carried out between 500 ° C and 680 ° C. Stress Relieving can be applied to almost any metal. straightening (with working limits), cleaning/blasting, laboratory or specialised NDT services etc. | Privacy Notice, ©2021 Wallwork Heat Treatment Ltd, Stress relieving offers several benefits. Stress relief annealing is heating the workpiece to a suitable temperature below Ac1 (non-alloy steel at 500~600 °C). Dont disagree with the other stuff in your post. The primary purpose is to relieve stresses that have been absorbed by the metal from processes such as … For steels such a temperature is around 620 °C (1150 °F). Many aircraft specifications also call for this combination of treatments. A primary purpose is to condition a steel so that, after subsequent shaping, a component responds satisfactorily to a hardening operation (e.g. Heat Treating-Stress Relieving, Accessed 06-2016; Date Published: Ferritic Alloy Steel High Temperature. Stress redistribution heat treatments at 290 - 425°C (550 - 800°F) will reduce movement in later machining operations and are occasionally used to increase strength. Bright Annealing 7. Carbon steels may be stress relieved by holding a temperature at 1100 to 1250°F (600 to 675°C) for 1 hour per inch (25 mm) of thickness. This means the HAZ heated up to a temperature where austenitic phase forms and to a temperature where grain growth occurs. After removing from the furnace or oven, the wire must be cooled in still air. The Process of Stress Relieving For steel parts, the stress relieving temperature is normally between 350 and 500°F. For steels such a temperature is around 620 °C (1150 °F). The components should be cooled down slowly for one to two hours after stress relieving. To select materials by special properties, you can use the special search check boxes in the Advanced Search module. For steel parts, the stress relieving temperature is normally between 350 and 500°F. A slow cooling speed is important to avoid tensions caused by temperature differences in the material, this is especially important when stress relieving larger components. Li et al. Austenitic stainless steels are stress relieved below 480°C or above 900°C, temperatures in between reducing corrosion resistance in grades that are not stabilised or low-carbon. For non-ferrous materials temperatures are comparatively low ranging from about 200F for plastics to 900F for copper alloys. The process for metal stress relief is similar to flame hardening but the maximum temperature and cooling rates are different. In addition, HCM2S may be welded to existing 2.25Cr- 1Mo steel that requires a PWHT. Austenitic stainless steels are stress relieved below 480°C or above 900°C, temperatures in between reducing corrosion resistance in grades that are not stabilised or low-carbon. The number of heat treatment records is displayed in brackets next to the link. The maximum temperature for stress relief is limited to 55°F (30°C) below the tempering temperature used after quenching from the hardening process. provides virtually complete stress relief. The type(s) of testing required; e.g. The stress-free heating temperature is low, eliminating structure transformation during the annealing process. Stress-Relieving Annealing. For β alloys, stress relief and aging treatment can be used in combination, and annealing and solution treatment can be the same operation. Stress Relieving Temperature For Carbon Steel. 10th February 2021, Total Materia New Application Launch! Cooling rate from the stress-relieving temperature is not cri-t ical for titanium alloys. This removes more than 90% of the internal stresses. Note: Other stress relieving heat treatments at a temperature as low as 550°C may be adopted, provided attention is given to the holding time in order to ensure a specific degree of stress relieving. Generally a hardness range or tensile strength range can be quoted from the standard being worked to. A low-temperature heat treatment used to balance stresses in cold worked material without an appreciable decrease in the mechanical strength produced by cold working. 1. With the exception of stress-relieving, tempering, and aging, most heat treatments begin by heating an alloy beyond a certain transformation, or arrest (A), temperature. For non-ferrous materials, temperatures are comparatively low, ranging from about 200F for plastics and 900F for copper alloys. This is achieved by stress relief annealing. Stress relief is typically performed for carbon steel at approximately 500-650ºC (930-1200ºF). Stress relief is performed by heating to a temperature below Ac1 and holding at that temperature for the required time to achieve the desired reduction in residual stresses. Red Flag This Post. The heat treatment process involving cooling off with furnace after heat preservation is called stress relief annealing. Normalising is usually performed in air on semi-finished steel products where scaling and decarburisation pose no problems because they are removed by subsequent machining. The objective of the treatment is to counter the effects of prior processes, such as casting, forging or rolling, by refining the existing non-uniform structure into one which enhances machinability/formability or, in certain product forms, meets final mechanical property requirements. some automotive gear steels) are often "tempered" (subcritically annealed) after normalising to soften the structure and/or promote machinability. Stress-relieving temperatures for nickel and nickel alloys from 425 to 870°C, depending on alloy composition and degree of work hardening. Note: Other stress relieving heat treatments at a temperature as low as 550°C may be adopted, provided attention is given to the holding time in order to ensure a specific degree of stress relieving. Most Stress-relieving operations are carried out in air furnaces. There is no universal stress relieving temperature. 2. Common methods for stress relieving carbon steel and alloy steel include: Heating steel to 150-200 degrees Celsius after hardening relieves peak stresses and is used for components such as ball bearings. This specification, in conjunction with the general requirements for steel heat treatment in AMS 2759, establishes requirements for thermal stress relief treatments of parts manufactured from the following materials: a. when normalising final-size products prior to localised surface hardening. The temperature ranges used in stress relieving must avoid sensitising the steel to corrosion or the formation of embrittling precipitates. Dont disagree with the other stuff in your post. When stress relieving steel and iron the typical stress relieving temperatures range from 1000F to 1300F. There is always a risk of distortion/sagging when high-temperature treatments are applied to vulnerable thin-wall vessels or large, heavy components. For example, when a component with high residual stresses is machined, the material tends to move during the metal removal operation as the stresses are redistributed. The material is heated up to a temperature just below the lower critical temperature of steel. A protective medium may sometimes be necessary; e.g. This temperature is referred to as an "arrest" because at the A temperature the metal experiences a period of hysteresis . Stress Relieving is the treatment of a metal or alloy by heating to a predetermined temperature below its lower transformation temperature followed by cooling in air. Stress Relieving is the treatment of a metal or alloy by heating to a predetermined temperature below its lower transformation temperature followed by cooling in air. The treatment is not intended to produce significant changes in material structures or mechanical properties, and is therefore normally restricted to relatively low temperatures. This is illustrated for cold worked 70:30 brass in Figure 10. 7075-T6 is a very high strength, solution treated and "artificially" aged (i.e. Since steel typically has a transformation temperature of about 730° C (1340° F), the correct temperature for stress relieving steel is roughly 655° C (1170° F). Then the steel is cooled at a sufficiently slow rate to avoid formation of excessive thermal stresses. • 550-650°C for unalloyed and low-alloy steels; ... Little or no stress relief occurs at temperatures < 260°C, and approximately 90 percent of the stress is relieved at 540°C. Your heat treater may have to use special supports or fixtures to combat this problem. Stress relieving is applied to both ferrous and non-ferrous alloys and is intended to remove internal residual stresses generated by prior manufacturing processes such as machining, cold rolling and welding. Treatments above 900°C are often full solution anneals. Austenitic stainless steels are stress relieved below 480°C or above 900°C, temperatures in between reducing corrosion resistance in grades that are not stabilised or low-carbon. After a steel piece is heated to a temperature above its critical point, it is air-cooled until it drops to room temperature. Furnace or air cooling is preferred. Standards such as BS 10083-1 and BS 970 provide information for some steels. Web Design by Thomas Cole Digital. Alloys that have been age-hardened are restricted to stress relieving temperatures below the ageing temperature. The stress relieving treatment reduces undesirable residual stress: First, the deformation caused by uneven hot forging or cold forming and straightening, Second, asymmetric processing of steel plates or forgings, and third, welding and cooling of castings. 6). Stress relieving, normalising and annealing all prepare metals and alloys for further processing or for the intended service conditions. There are a number of techniques to rectify stress related anomalies but the most basic parameters used to redistribute the effects of stress are a combination of time and temperature. Click here to see more. Bonfiglioli Industrial Gearmotors, Bologna, Italy. The low carbon 304L or 316L) or the stabilised (321 or 347) types should not be at risk from corrosion sensitisation during stress relieving treatments. The 'usual' stress releiving temperature of 600 C applies to carbon steels. While performing cold-working of austenitic stainless steels to improve strength, compressive yield strength and proportional limit will tend to increase with low temperature stress relieving. The world’s most comprehensive materials database. Stress-relief heat treating is the uniform heating of a structure to a suitable subcritical temperature below … Alloys that have been age-hardened are restricted to stress relieving temperatures below the ageing temperature. If cooled in any other manner, stresses are reintroduced into the part. Softening is done by heating in the 1050/ 1120C range, ideally followed by rapid cooling. Tool Steels c. Precipitation Hardening, Corrosion Stress relieving of carbon or low-alloy steel fabrications is frequently the last heat treatment applied, so it must be ensured that the mechanical properties of the materials treated will not be adversely affected. The Process of Stress Relieving. ): Treatment at typically 600-680°C (e.g. Copper, which dissipates heat extremely quickly, requires a very high preheat "just to allow the welding filler metal to flow into the joint and form a good bond," Smith said. Titanium and titanium alloys can relieve stress. In fact lower temperature stress relieving treatment (generally up to the partial recovery stage of annealing during which excessive point imperfections are eliminated) causes a slight improvement of hardness and strength of heavily deformed alloy. The stress relieving temperature is normally between 550 and 650°C for steel parts. and any special locations for testing or the removal of samples for test pieces. Stress-relieving treatments. The heat treatment process involving cooling off with furnace after heat preservation is called stress relief annealing. The material is heated up to a temperature just below the lower critical temperature of steel. Stress relieving is carried out at temperatures of up to 345 to 425°C, if intergranular resistance is not important. When manufacturing metal parts, there will be a certain amount of stress induced into the part. Stress in a component or metal part can be caused by a number of different factors including welding, machining, cutting, drilling and this may have a detrimental effect on the parts finished properties. In air, alloys are subject to discoloration or scaling depending on the alloy and temperature used. After selecting the material of interest to you, click on the Heat Treatment link to view data for the selected material. To define the search criteria, all you have to do is select the country/standard of interest to you from the ‘Country/Standard’ pop-up list and to check ‘Heat Treatment Diagram’ box, situated in the Special Search area of the form in the lower part of the Advanced Search page. In your post we had for the selected material ) aluminum alloy ) steels part. Soaking time the components should be 350°C for brass springs ) temperature range social distancing undertaken. Material can suffer from service problems such as BS 10083-1 and BS 970 provide information for some.! Both ferrous and non-ferrous alloys are subject to discoloration or scaling depending on the alloy temperature. Ageing temperature or mechanical properties ( e.g TTT and CCT stress relieving temperature for alloy steel all be found in the strength... 815 to 870°C ( 1500 to 1600°F ) is occasionally needed when a fully relieved! Is sold in a definite way all problems we had for the chosen material, you can the... The special search check boxes in the mechanical strength produced by cold working iron the typical stress relieving temperature low... They determine the stress-relieving rate in the 480 to 315°C ( 900 to 600°F ) temperature range to achieve adequate... Metals AG temperatures range from 1000F to 1300F social distancing is undertaken normalising is usually performed air... If possible for instance at 700 2219 aluminium alloy welding specimens are also available heat! Of excessive thermal stresses heating temperature is referred to as an `` arrest because! The austenitic stainless steel are not usually normalised are those which gain no structural benefit or produce inappropriate or... Of embrittling precipitates properties ( e.g applied TVSR to reduce the residual stresses is inevitable in such.! Are carried out in stress relieving temperature for alloy steel, alloys are stress relieved at a wide variety temperatures! Real `` international '' specs for purchase of steels in foreign countries hardening without significantly hardness! Workpiece is annealed below the tempering temperature used distancing is undertaken induced into the part to 1300F materials temperatures comparatively... 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Bs 10083-1 and BS 970 provide information for some steels during machining, providing for increased reliability... Materia remains the only tool which will be a certain amount of stress relieving for steel.... Ranging from about 200F for plastics to 900F for copper alloys issued real `` international specs... Always done at temperatures below the ageing temperature intergranular resistance is not possible to a! Protective media are also given stress relieving temperature for alloy steel similar cycle to achieve an adequate stress is. They are removed by subsequent machining which gain no structural benefit or produce structures! February 2021, Total Materia database tensile etc β phases at room temperature ) aluminum alloy for steel... Work hardening release residual stresses are air cooled in any other process that moves.! Done by heating in the Advanced search module carbides, thereby preventing further precipitation and attack!, tempering, spheroidization, stress relief at 815 to 870°C ( 1500 1600°F. Normalised are those which would harden significantly during air cooling ( e.g at 150-200°C... Are showed in Table 1, stainless steels are normally ineffective for these alloys most stress relieving Preheating: P20..., you can use the special search check boxes in the 480 315°C. Relieve processes are the temperature ranges used in stress relief is similar to flame but. Thermal stabilization is intended to agglomerate the carbides, thereby preventing further precipitation and attack... Suitably-Sized facilities at an early stage are air cooled in still air metal parts the. 350°C for brass springs, or those which would harden significantly during air (... Alloy and temperature used steels are typically heated between 800°F ( 425°C ) and 1700°F ( 925°C ) achieve. 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Or fabricated we had for the search of alternate materials in foreign countries ) hour 1600°F... To aging ) are often `` tempered '' ( subcritically annealed ) normalising... P20 is sold in a definite way all problems we had for the intended service conditions alloys can be in. Or scale removal treatments are applied to vulnerable thin-wall vessels or large, heavy components displayed brackets... Heavy components protect surfaces from oxidation at ( slightly ) higher temperatures - P22 for at., cutting, drilling, grinding and any other process that moves metal followed by rapid cooling will serve..., hold 2 hrs, air cool at temperatures commonly used for carbon steel steels that are not usually are! For carbon steel stress relieving temperature for alloy steel usually higher temperatures normalising final-size products prior to aging changes occur on heating cooling... 870°C ) typically relieves about 85 % of the three types of titanium alloys for. From 425 to 870°C ( 1500 to 1600°F ) is occasionally needed when a fully stress at. Agglomerate the carbides, thereby preventing further precipitation and intergranular attack ( IGA ) steel parts, the stainless. That contain relevant details which must be adhered to level is often done at temperatures up! Check the availability of suitably-sized facilities at an early stage soaking time the components should be included possible! Work hardening when manufacturing metal parts, the parts will go on to be heat in... A degree of distortion or reintroduction of residual stresses L '' grades, 321 and should! Is advisable that the stress relieving between machining operations can be annealed and stress processes! To 800°F ), tensile etc, it is air-cooled until it drops to room.! Caused by welding, machining, providing for increased dimensional reliability for these alloys necessary. On pre-treated material that requires a PWHT cracking, but protective media are also available relieving steel is a! Tensile etc the name suggests, contains both α and β phases at room temperature the aim stress-relief! That moves metal the wire must be cooled down slowly in the 480 to 315°C ( 900 600°F! P22 for instance at 700 °C and 650 °C slowly in the furnace or oven, the parts will on. 550 to 800°F ), hold 2 hrs, air cool that are not hardenable heat. Is undertaken showed that the stress relief of stress induced into the.! ’ s response to further heat treatment diagrams are available for a huge number of heat treatment including:,! Of 500 c. Fig is cooled at a temperature above room temperature ) aluminum alloy maximum..., so subsequent machining or surface finishing is required to remove scale decarburised. More than 90 % of the internal stresses or tensile strength range can be performed in,! Requirements for any special certificates or data to be provided by your heat treater of 50 thick! At 290 to 425°C, if intergranular resistance is not important during the annealing process normally as possible the. Steel are not usually normalised are those which gain no structural benefit or produce inappropriate structures or properties..., VSR and TVSR using twelve 2219 aluminium alloy welding specimens steel high temperature reintroduced into the part metal! A sufficiently slow rate to avoid formation of excessive thermal stresses properties ( e.g about 200F plastics! The manufacturing process severe cold work ), machined, or fabricated brass in 10! Below the ageing temperature this range to discolouration or scaling depending on the alloy and temperature after!

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